International Journal of Malaria Research and Reviews
Volume 4 Issue 1 Page 7 - 18. January 2016

Copyright 2016 Discourse Journals

Full Length Research Paper

In vitro investigation into the Haemin Polymerization Inhibitory activity of chloroquine and emetine dihydrochloride hydrate

Abdullahi Muhammad Daskum

Department of Biological Sciences, Yobe State University, PMB 1144, Damaturu


During the intra-erythrocytic development of malaria parasites, haemoglobin in the red cell cytosol is ingested and taken to the food vacuole, where it is degraded. Haemoglobin degradation in the malaria parasite results in the formation of heme/haematin, an essentially toxic protein and denatured globin fragments. Due to its toxicity, free heme (Fe+3) induce oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species, subvert and lyse membranes, as well as inhibit the action of a number of enzymes, thus leading to parasite death. To overcome the toxicity of free heme (Fe+3) and avoid death, malaria parasites convert free heme (Fe+3) to a non-toxic haemozoin. This research intends to demonstrate the in vitro conversion of haemin to β-haematin/haemozoin through haemin based spectrophotometry and test emetine dihydrochloride hydrate and chloroquine diphosphate for their ability to prevent the conversion of haemin to β-haematin. Results obtained justify the inhibitory activity of chloroquine on the haemin polymerization pathway, but the β-haematin inhibitory activity of emetine remains inconclusive. Whilst the study did not confirm the in vitro β-haematin inhibitory activity of emetine, more research is required to determine the exact pathway to which emetine act upon in the malaria parasite and more broadly, further investigation into its inhibitory activity on the haemin polymerization pathway is needed.

Keywords: Haemin, β-haematin, Emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, Chloroquine diphosphate, Haemoglobin degradation

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