International Journal of Malaria Research and Reviews
Volume 4 Issue 1 Page 1 - 6. January 2016

Copyright 2016 Discourse Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Quality of Antimalarial Drugs in Malaria Endemic Municipalities of Pangasinan, Philippines

Ajuonuma Udochukwu Joshua1,2, Catanes Jimmy1, Ajuonuma Mary Uchechi2,3, Emmanuel Blessing Chioma2,4, Uzo-Ngerem Adanma Joan2, Ogbedeagu Virgilus Mahakwe5, Chuku Chika Lawson6 and Ajonuma Louis Chukwuemeka2,7*

1College of Graduate Studies, Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation, San Carlos City, Pangasinan, Philippines.
2St. Marys’ Hospital Amakohia, Ihitte – Uboma, Imo State, Nigeria.
3Department of Pharmacy, Mina General Hospital, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
4Department of Nursing, Imo State University,Nigeria.
5University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.
6Department of Internal Medicine, Braitheweith Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
7Department of Physiology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria


Malaria is a major public health problem in the South-East Asia (SEA) including Philippines. In the Philippines, Seventy-four provinces are considered malaria endemic with around 11 million Filipinos at risk of malaria. Previously, no study looked at the quality of antimalarial drugs circulating in these malaria endemic municipalities including those of Pangasinan. The present study determined the quality of available anti-malarial drugs in the malaria endemic municipalities of Pangasinan.The quality of the samples of available antimalarial drugs was determined using disintegration and in-vitro dissolution tests, and also based on their physico-chemical characteristics according to United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All anti-malarial drugs from the Government Units of the Municipal Health Offices of selected municipalities in Pangasinan as well as the commercially available OTC drugs passed their physico-chemical evaluations. They had disintegration times within the specified limits prescribed by United States Pharmacopeia (USP). All the samples of Artemether Lumefantrine combination tablets passed dissolution tests. However, they had mean dissolution of 78.97 % (range 75.84 to 81.9) that is marginal. Only fifty percent (50%) of all the Chloroquine phosphate samples passed the dissolution tests. Artemether Lumefantrine combination and Chloroquine phosphate samples in this study had good disintegration times but showed poor dissolution tests results. The effects of these poor in vitro dissolution tests results on their in vivo metabolism and bioavailability, as well as their drug – drug interactions need further investigations.

Keywords: Malaria, drugs, quality, Philippines

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